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Every attempt has been made in this book to represent accu- rately the relationship between customary and SI units. Except where noted, soft conversions are used throughout-rounding up 12 inches to millime- ters rather than Manual drafting is often used for developing quick ideas and details, and is still employed quite frequently for final perspective drawings.
Leads, in various diameters up to 0. Standard wood-encased pencils; good for freehand drawing and sketching. Manual sharpener whose blades give leads a specified sharpness. Leads in various hardnesses; good for drawing or sketching on tracing papers and vellum.
Nonprint and nonphoto varieties do not show up on certain reproduc- tion machines. Leads designed for use on drawing films such as vellum and Mylar.
Pens of specific widths designed for drafting; used exclusively on drafting films and vellums; tips can dry out and require frequent cleanin.
Plastic straightedges with a perpendicular attachment at one end to ensure that vertical lines on the page remain perpendicular to horizontal lines.
Plastic straightedges whose system of cables, rollers, and springs provides an edge that can move in one direction on a drawing surface. Clear plastic triangles that can be set to any angle.
Wide variety of plastic sheets whose cutouts simplify drawing repeti- tive elements such as circles, polygons, and furniture. Measurable rulers that can flex to a user-defined curve or arc. Plastic guides that offer many curved radii. Paper Description Sizes Best Use Tracing Paper thin, transparent paper rolls in standard sketching and drafting de- that comes in white or drafting sizes 12", tails; overlay work; pencil, yellow 18", 24", and 36" ink, and marker Vellum thicker than trace; avail- sheets and rolls construction documents; able in various weights hard-line detail drawings; 16, 20, and 24 Ibs.
In a necessary abstraction, lines, symbols, and text all combine to convey the designer's vision. Lines convey a project's intended plan, demonstrate the sectional quality of the space, and visually cue the reader to matters of hierarchy, type, and intent.
Line weights and types can be created through various media, both manually and digitally. Line types have many functions in an interior drawing. The designer determines the relative meaning for different weights; however, heavier lines are typically reserved for plans and sec- tion cuts, while lighter lines form the outlines of surfaces and furniture within a room.
Color, Space, And Style - All the Details
Medium and Light Used for dimensions, lines on objects that are not in the cutting plane, and objects hidden from view. Dashed Used for hidden objects, either above or below the cutting plane. Dashed lines represent many different elements, from objects that are hidden from view to objects above the cut plane e.
They can also be tied to consultant trades, showing, for example, structural grids, electrical wiring, lighting and switching, or mechanical routing. Hierarchy in a plan drawing is established through the careful use of line weights and types. Here the walls that are cut are the most heavily rendered; furniture and built-ins are lighter; and hidden elements such as shelving and cabinetry are expressed with dashed lines. Below are some of the symbols typically used for an interior set.
Symbols on a plan drawing are keyed to other drawings in the set, including reflected ceiling plans, elevations, sections, and details. Elements needed to implement a design are thus easily read from drawing to drawing, and revisions are readily coordinated. Dimensions are indicated in strings around the plan, or in some cases, within the plan itself. Legibility of text and numbers is crucial to reading a plan. Some drawing types will overlap with those of other disciplines, such as architecture or electrical engineer- ing, while others are unique to interior design.
The following pages demonstrate the typical drawings with which an interior designer should be familiar. Floor Plans Floor plans establish the limits-from demising parti- tions to exterior walls-that will frame the project. Walls are indicated by their dimensions, and doors by their centerline, for easy location within the floor plate. Plans are drawn at a scale that allows them to be comprehen- sible in one view.
All light fixtures, soffits, transoms, and other ceiling data such as heights and materials are noted on RCPs. Standard symbols are used to describe fixture types and location and are keyed to a legend on the drawing sheet.
Furniture Location Plans Interior designers often specify furniture-both custom and downloadd-for their projects. These items are indicated on many other plans, but furniture location plans specifically dimen- sion their placement within the project.
The fin- ishes are dimensioned as necessary. Standard symbols that identify finish types are tied to a legend that accompanies each plan.
Floor Finish Plan Floor finish plans set the type, location, and dimensions of any pattern that is within the scope of the design, including, if neces- sary, a start tile. Wall Finish Plan Wall finish plans, with a simple tagging system, provide the data for start and stop points of color, for materials such as wallpapers and other wall coverings like wood paneling, and for acoustic treatments.
Interior Elevations Elevations are typically drawn at a larger scale than the plans of a project. This allows for the inclusion of more detail, such as specific information about the dimensional and material qualities of objects in the interior.
Elements on elevational drawings are cross-referenced to section and plan details that further develop the design. Here, cabinets, transoms, door and glazing details, and custom fixtures are highlighted. They are produced at a larger scale than all other drawings in the set. Occasionally, details are drawn at larger than full scale to transmit clearly the intent of the designer to the fabrica- tor or contractor.
In detail drawings, materials are rendered symbolically, and annotations specify the material and fabrication methods to be used.
Multiple drawing sheets are typically used for elevations, details, and millwork drawings that require greater elaboration of the design intent, and at a larger scale than plan drawings. These types of drawings are numbered by a coordinate system outlined at bottom.
When many types and scales of drawings are contained on a single sheet, their arrangement flows from bottom left to top right, and they are numbered in the manner shown. Cells, which con- tain single drawings, can be added to the sheet, but legibility is key to how many can fit comfortably on a sheet.
Chasing the Details A typical sequence for following the links in a drawing set is illustrated below. A plan drawing A contains information regarding, among other things, an enlarged plan.
Navigating to the cross-referenced sheet 8 indicates a further link to room elevations C , which are marked with sectional information found on yet another sheet D. As with the multidrawing sheet, the gridded coordinate system allows for more details to be easily added as necessary.
For clarity and organization, the types of drawings that comprise an interior design set are numbered in sections that generally move from overall plans to specific details. After these drawings, consultants' sets should follow in a sequence similar to that listed below. Cover Sheet Gives project name and location, and firm information Index Sheet Outlines drawings in the set, abbreviations, etc.
In the United States, the common format is the architectural classification. Inches Millimeters Inches A 8. Relative Paper Sizes The drawing above illustrates all of the paper sizes overlaid. The various ratios and sizes can be seen clearly. Drawing Basics 43 In general, three- dimensional drawings should clarify the intent of the design.
In interiors, they can demon- strate and explain many aspects of a project: Numerous types of three-dimensional drawings can be incorporated into a project, including paraline drawings-where all lines in the image remain parallel to each other-and perspec- tive drawings-where lines converge to points on a horizon. Paraline Drawings Also known as axonometric, isometric, and oblique, paraline drawings are extremely useful to the designer as they represent the third dimension in ways that are parallel and measur- able, and combine plan, section, and elevation into a single drawing.
The choice of angle will emphasize certain parts of the object; choosing the correct angle and projection method is essential to the success of the drawing as a communicative tool.
Plan obliques allow for a true plan to be used in the construction of the drawing. The angle of view is also higher than in other projections. Elevation obliques draw a true elevation in the picture. For both, an angle is chosen to represent the volume of the object usually 30 or 45 degrees , and the depth of the object is extruded from the picture plane. Oblique drawings often appear distorted and are compressed by a third or a half to restore proportion to the object.
Isometric and Dimetric Trimetric Exploded Axonometric Isometric, Dimetric, and Trimetric Projections Isometric, dimetric, and trimetric projections constitute the second classification of paraline drawings, and all are referred to as axonometric drawings. In these, the angles from which the object is viewed is lower than in obliques. Often, plans and sections cannot be used as the basis of the drawing, as there is inherent distortion in each projection.
In an isometric projec- tion, the three axes of the object are equal in angle to the picture plane and are foreshortened equally. Because of this equality, isometric projection is the most popular of the axonomet- ric types. A dimetric projection foreshortens two axes and the third is either elongated or shortened to prevent distortion.
In a trimetric drawing, all axes are foreshortened by different amounts. On occasion, designers may prefer the exploded axonometric, a technique of pulling individual faces away from the object to reveal elements within. Key to the exploded axonometric draw- ing is the ability for the eye to reconstitute the complete object.
Dashed lines are added to this drawing to indicate the direction and length to which the drawing has been taken apart. Drawing Basics 45 Perspective Drawings Interior perspective drawings do not differ in construction from their architectural counter- parts, though their obvious focus on the interior makes the choice of reference point much easier.
Care must be taken, however, not to distort the image by making the cone of vision too large an angle or the picture frame too wide. Picture Plane PP: Flat surface, always perpendicular to the viewer's center of vi- sion, on which the image in perspective is projected. Horizon Line, or eye height HL: Locates the horizon as established by the viewer's height; it is typically projected from the verti- cal measuring line ML. Station Point, or eye point SP: Locates the position and height of the viewer.
Ground Line GL: Represents the intersection of the ground plane and the picture plane. Center of Vision C: In a one-point perspec- tive, a line perpendicular to the horizon line is drawn from the center of vision to estab- lish the point to which all lines converge.
Vanishing Point VP: Vanishing points in a two-point perspective are found by projecting lines parallel to each axis of the plan until they meet the picture plane. Lines are then projected perpendicular to the horizon line. Cer- tainly, the industry acknowledges particular standards; at the same time, several emerging technologies are beginning to affect the way in which design is thought about, represented, and produced. These applications have been categorized into the distinct groups that fol- low-not to suggest an authoritative list, but rather to provide a framework for selecting the best software to suit an individual practice.
Imaging software is typically used for adding people to perspectives, indicating zones of a plan, or including details on plans and elevations. Many applications permit layering, so that different aspects of the design can be emphasized and alternative schemes explored.
Layering in 2-D software allows for the isolation of specific parts of a draw- ing, whether it is a sche- matic image or a working construction document. Raster Images A raster image is a collection of pixels or points of color that depend on their resolution for their integrity.
[PDF] Color, Space, and Style: All the Details Interior Designers Need to Know but Can Never Find
The more pixels in a given image, the greater its resolution, providing more information about the image displayed on screen. Resolution also determines the size of the printed image; the greater the resolution, the higher the quality, which allows for a larger print. A raster image is very memory-intensive, as each pixel and its combination of colors must be considered in the document. To be saved at smaller sizes, raster images employ compression techniques that can effect the quality of the image.
Such formats are often referred to as "lossy" because they lose information in the compression of the original. Each has its advantages and use. Raster Image Processing Several applications exist for processing and editing raster images, the most popular of which is Adobe's Photoshop.
These programs allow users to correct mistakes in an image; add mate- rial content to perspectives, plans, and sections; and create images entirely from scratch. The images adjacent demonstrate the loss in quality-occasionally referred to as artifacting-as raster compression increases.
Vector Images A vector image is the opposite of a raster image. Vector files are translations of mathemati- cal data into a visual format in the form of points, lines, curves, and polygons. Each of these shapes is defined by a series of coordinates, which a computer application then translates into a visible graphic. Vector files have the advantage of being resolution independent. This independence allows them to be printed at a very small or very large scale without any loss of information.
Moreover, compared to raster images, the file size is quite small, as it is es- sentially a sequence of numerical relationships. Vector File Types Vector files maintain their resolu- tion regardless of how large they are scaled. Curves are main- tained, though line weights may need to be adjusted if the image is made too large. Several types of files can contain vector information. The most common of these is EPS, which can be written and read by most vector-based applications.
Vector Image Processing Computer applications allow users to create vector-based images and edit them by object, segment, or point. By default, most computer-aided design CAD software is vector-based. The advantage of vector drawing is both in its resolution-independence which allows images to be blown up for close examination without losing any image quality and in the user's ability to snap to points within the drawing.
Vector Development Pierre Bezier, working as an engineer at the Renault car company in the s, developed a computational method for representing curves both in 2-D and 3-D space.
The curve is con- nected by two end points, or anchors, and the shape of the curve is made by control points. The position of the control points in relation to the anchors defines the nature of the curve.
The benefits of this format are that it allows for the preservation of format, the correct printing of line weights, and the inclusion of both raster and vector images within the same document. PDF files can also contain links, similar to HTTP links on a website, that facilitate ease of movement through a set of documents- ranging from specifications to construction documents or even a presentation to a client. It should be noted that numerous appli- cations can create PDF files, but Acrobat is the most widely used for editing, appending, and organizing them.
PDF files that contain vector art can be opened in vector applications like AutoCAD, illustra- tor, and Canvas, or can be rasterized upon import to a raster image editor like Photoshop. This allows for a relatively open format for the transmission of documents. Files can also be password-protected to prevent unwanted editing; as such, and with the introduction of digital signatures, they have become increasingly accepted as legally binding documents. Choosing the Right Image Type The choice of file type is ultimately up to the designer.
For clarity and scalability, technical drawings such as plans and sections should remain vector-based. Raster images should be reserved for scans, perspectives, and any renderings that include entourage-people, trees, and other elements. Drawing Basics 51 The computer has changed the practice of interior design in many ways-from facilitating communication within a project team to tracking and handling changes among all parties in incredibly accurate ways to translating design ideas directly into custom- fabricated pieces.
But first, the designer must determine which application to use, a choice that takes into consideration many factors, including the computer platform Macintosh, Unix, or PC and the complexity of the work being produced. Two-dimensional drawing applications enable a designer to replicate digitally the ink-on-Mylar process of developing a design. The benefits of computer draft- ing are the degree of precision that the software en- ables, the collaborative possibilities, the ease of shar- ing information with consultants, and the efficiency 0 - -0 - -0 of repetitive output.
The information entered into the computer is essentially dumb, however: A line is only a line, and a complex set of details are simply a collec- tion of lines representing the idea of the designer. In the digital environment, drawings are created at full scale that is, at the scale at which they are expected to be constructed and then organized and scaled down for output. Because two-dimensional applica- tions replicate the manual drafting environment, they require the same coordination of working drawings and construction documents.
Close attention is needed to ensure that cross-referencing, schedules, and annota- tions are revised as a project progresses. Drawings for consultants are uploaded to an FTP server for retrieval.
Layering and Standards The sharing of information across users, both within an interior design office and among consultants, requires a close agreement on how layers are named and organized. Several or- ganizations have developed strategies for systems that facilitate information interchange. A strategy for layer use and formatting is usually agreed upon during the contract negotiation phase of a project.
The drawing below demonstrates the system as deployed by the NCS: For example, a typical layer breakdown could be as follows: The A designation is typically used for architecture layers, but as there is a lot of overlap among disciplines, it is best to keep the standard consistent.
File Interchange All drafting applications write data to their own file types, yet it is essential to be able to share the information created with others on the project. These are native to AutoCAD, and most, if not all, of the applications on the market write to them with varying levels of success.
Drawing Basics 53 These models can be used for analytic study in the development of details and as representations of the project as it evolves-complete with accurate material, lighting, and atmospheric qualities. Three-dimensional design programs offer great potential for engaging directly with a design as it is being created, though they are not without their limits. Several options avail- able to the designer are outlined below.
Three-dimensional modeling applications are often categorized by the types of objects they create; that is, as either surface modelers or solid modelers. While several applications can produce both solid and surface types, most specialize in one or the other. Not all available applications are designed for interior visualization, and any decision to download software should be considered carefully alongside issues of licensing and training.
Surface Modelers Surface models are constructed by drawing three-dimensional splines and using a sweep func- tion to form a surface; by making meshes that are then lofted and transformed into design objects; or by creating a parametric surface that responds to changes in control points and control polygons-also known as NURBS Non-uniform Rational B-Spline.
In a surface model, faces and segments can easily be transformed, attached, and accumulated to create complex forms. Surface modelers are especially useful in rapid prototyping scenarios, where the designer desires the direct translation of the model to a physical object. One chief drawback is how easy it is to delete individual surfaces, thus opening the precise modeling process to error.
Surfaces have no implicit volume. Solid Modelers Solid modeling applications create objects that have closed geometries; a cube, for example, can only be solid if it has six sides whose segments coincide with each other. Such an object is considered to be well formed and therefore solid. Solid models are well suited to archi- tecture and interior design practices, as they function in a way similar to the construction process: Objects are decided on, created, and accumulated to form the intended design.
This cumulative approach is ideal for the creation of spaces that have a lot of detail and tectonic qualities. In addition, various functions copy, rotate, scale, etc. Boolean Operations Solid models can also be affected by subtractive and additive functions known as Boolean operations.
Boolean operators can subtract solid volumes from each other, add volumes to- gether, and split volumes into their component pieces, so that from an original object come a number of resultant objects.
Booleans depend on the order of objects picked. In the following diagrams, the lower rectangular volume was picked first. Original Objects Union: One Solid Difference: Pdf for Java , along with a change of release numbering. As the Java version is ported from Aspose.
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Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Book details Author:Typical Furniture Dimensions Specific functional requirements and the size and shape of the room will help set the agenda for selecting and arranging the most appropriate furniture.
Interior designers should, at a min- imum, be familiar with the design issues and potential solutions outlined below. Beyond these sizes, tables are typically combined or expanded. Color, space, and style: Raster Image Processing Several applications exist for processing and editing raster images, the most popular of which is Adobe's Photoshop. Perspectives on Fundamentals 73 SPACE 76 The shaping of space into rooms of specific configurations is the primary art of the interior designer.
Color, Space and Style. These contingences can range from 5 to 15 percent of the overall estimate.